By the end of Year 6, students compare and classify different types of observable changes to materials. They analyse requirements for the transfer of electricity and describe how energy can be transformed from one form to another to generate electricity. They describe and predict the effect of environmental changes on individual living things.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background The number of mental health apps MHapps developed and now available to smartphone users has increased in recent years.
MHapps and other technology-based solutions have the potential to play an important part in the future of mental health care; however, there is no single guide for the development of evidence-based MHapps. Many currently available MHapps lack features that would greatly improve their functionality, or include features that are not optimized.
Furthermore, MHapp developers rarely conduct or publish trial-based experimental validation of their apps. Indeed, a previous systematic review revealed a complete lack of trial-based evidence for many of the hundreds of MHapps available. Objective To guide future MHapp development, a set of clear, practical, evidence-based recommendations is presented for MHapp developers to create better, more rigorous apps.
Methods A literature review was conducted, scrutinizing research across diverse fields, including mental health interventions, preventative health, mobile health, and mobile app design. Results Sixteen recommendations were formulated. Evidence for each recommendation is discussed, and guidance on how these recommendations might be integrated into the overall design of an MHapp is offered.
Each recommendation is rated on the basis of the strength of associated evidence. It is important to design an MHapp using a behavioral plan and interactive framework that encourages the user to engage with the app; thus, it may not be possible to incorporate all 16 recommendations into a single MHapp.
Conclusions Randomized controlled trials are required to validate future MHapps and the principles upon which they are designed, and to further investigate the recommendations presented in this review.
Effective MHapps are required to help prevent mental health problems and to ease the burden on health systems. Within the last decade, smartphones have been integrated into the personal, social, and occupational routines of a substantial proportion of the global population.
Average users check their phones as often as times a day [ 2 ], which reflects how smartphone apps can generate, reward, and maintain strong habits involving their use [ 34 ].
Over recent years, numerous mental health apps MHapps have been developed and made available to smartphone users. These apps aim to improve mental health and well-being, ranging from guiding mental illness recovery to encouraging beneficial habits that improve emotional health [ 8 ].
MHapps and other technology-based solutions have the potential to play an important part in the future of mental health care [ 10 ], making mental health support more accessible and reducing barriers to help seeking [ 11 ]. Innovative solutions to self-management of mental health issues are particularly valuable, given that only a small fraction of people suffering from mood or anxiety problems seek professional help [ 12 ].
Even when people are aware of their problems and are open to seeking help, support is not always easily accessible, geographically, financially, or socially [ 13 ].
Smartphones are not constrained by geography and are usually used privately by one individual. This means that smartphone apps can be extremely flexible and attractive to users, empowered by the confidentiality of their engagement.
Seeking help by downloading and using an MHapp is well suited to the needs of young adults and other users with a high need for autonomy [ 14 ]. Users also prefer self-help support materials if they are delivered via a familiar medium [ 15 ], such as a personal smartphone.
Smartphones apps are almost always accessible to users, so they can be used in any context and in almost any environment [ 16 ]. Using these apps, users can remind themselves throughout the day of ongoing goals and motivations, and be rewarded when they achieve goals [ 17 ].
However, many MHapps have not capitalized on the strengths and capabilities of smartphones. Design principles that have led to the huge success of many physical health and social networking apps have not been utilized in the MHapp field.
Furthermore, evidence-based guidelines that have been developed for other self-help mental health interventions have not been applied to many MHapps.
For example, many available MHapps target specific disorders and label their users with a diagnosis. Much research has suggested that this labeling process can be harmful and stigmatizing [ 18 ]. There also appears to be a lack of appreciation for experimental validation among MHapp developers.
Donker et al [ 8 ] revealed that there is a complete lack of experimental evidence for many of the hundreds of MHapps available.
Their systematic review identified only 5 apps that had supporting evidence from randomized controlled trials RCTs.
A search of the Apple and Google app stores as of January reveals that none of these RCT-supported apps is currently available to consumers. For a mental health intervention to be effective, there must be a process of rigorous experimental testing to guide development [ 19 ].
Appropriate theories of engagement and implementation should also be consulted when introducing an evidence-based intervention to the public [ 20 ].
However, such research is currently lacking. A series of recommended principles based on evidence and substantiated theories would be valuable in guiding the development of future MHapps and future RCTs.
A review of the literature highlights the numerous ways by which the design, validation, and overall efficacy of MHapps could be improved.This shopping feature will continue to load items.
In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. Griffis Residential, a Denver-based multifamily investment and management company, today announced that it has acquired The Wellington apartments, a unit multifamily Class-A community located in the resurgent west Las Vegas submarket of Summerlin.
Teach the unit, reflect, revise, and collect a range of student work samples; Participate in eight full-day workshops during the school year, starting in September; Participate in a 4-day professional development workshop during Summer Teachers who are incapable of self-regulating their own learning and/or do not hold personal beliefs that students can engage in SRL are less likely to support the development of these capabilities in the classroom [29–31].
W 2nd St Bound Brook, NJ is located in the Bound Brook School District and the nearest school is Bound Brook High School. an ideal family neighborhood with Bound Brook High School highly rated assigned schools.
May 8, Title 40 Protection of Environment Parts to Revised as of July 1, Containing a codification of documents of general applicability and future effect As of July 1, Published by the Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration as a Special Edition of the Federal Register.