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Abstract A critical evaluation of a paper by Machin and Spall which develops a practical model for supporting people suffering from grief and loss through counselling. The paper will be briefly summarised, bringing out the key features of the study. Then a number of aspects will be considered in more detail with a critical perspective, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the paper.
Overall, this is an interesting study with a useful practical model proposed, but certain areas seem to have been overlooked. They have a three-fold aim: Initially tested on 94 respondents, the present study tests its use amongst 15 elderly men and women. The scale was extended to reflect losses other than bereavement, themes to develop in further counselling sessions were explored, and a flow-chart introduced to create a link between quantitative and qualitative elements.
Their study took part in three phases, loosely associated with the three aims outlined above. Phase one gathered quantitative data age, sex and nature of referral for respondents, and responses to the AAG. Phase two amplified responses from the scale and was linked to individual expressions of grief explored in richer detail in counselling.
Phase three examined the implications of the previous phases for therapy. In a fairly extended discussion, the authors briefly relate their scale to other work in the field, including theories of grief, and set out a 6-stage model for counselling practice protocol. This is clearly explained, and suggests a practical use for the scale.
First, the client completes the AAG. This is then assessed by the therapist with the three groupings overwhelmed, balanced and controlled in mind. The data illuminates whether the client is biased towards any one or more of the three grief responses.
Finally, there is a move in therapy to help the client establish control or balance. The way that the model for using the scale is developed by the authors allows a clear plan for helping people deal with grief through counselling and therapy.
The model is well explained and appears easy to implement. However, there are a number of areas which are more problematic. First, the theoretical context of the scale in terms of other measurements of grief and theories of loss is underdeveloped.
In this paper, Machin and Spall do not compare the scale to other measurements of grief and loss. Does the AAG incorporate insights from earlier scales, for example, or does it offer a new approach?
In addition, there could be more discussion of how the scale relates to wider theoretical perspectives on grief. There are a number of theories regarding the process of grief and loss.
Dual Process theory, for example, suggests that experiences of loss are determined by two distinct sets of stressors: Dual process theory further suggests that the two sets cannot be processed at once, and that the person suffering the loss oscillates between one or the other.
The way in which the child relates to the attachment figure usually the mother shapes the way in which that person handles subsequent experience of loss and separation Worden In the current paper it would have been useful to have information of this nature.
In addition, the paper lacks any discussion of first the relationship between the three sub-scales overwhelmed, balanced, controlledand second which of the three positions represents the best position for the client. Here there is an attempt to tie the model to theory, but discussion is scant, and a more detailed theoretical perspective would have been welcome.
Another interesting point about the study is the way it combines qualitative and quantitative research. These are often treated as distinct methods of data collection, with quantitative research taking a scientific perspective, testing hypotheses and collecting numbers, and qualitative research concerned to look at subjective experience in greater depth and through text and words Babbie Such an approach can allow more innovative linking between results, creative design and allow for a problem-focused approach Denscombe They certainly collect numerical data from respondents, however there is no statistical analysis of results to show general patterns, for example looking at mean scores for responses or similar.
Additionally, quantitative data is most usually gathered to test a hypothesis or explore research questions Polgar and Thomasand there is no clear setting out of hypotheses here. In addition, there are questions about sampling.Abstract This essay comprises a discussion of a classical experiment from the history of psychology, namely Milgram’s obedience experiment.
This includes an evaluation of the relevance of Milgram’s findings to the present day. For this report I will be using information gained during two types of analysis from a critical psychological approach. These approaches are qualitative methods that are not based on science like experimental psychology.
The majority of students agree that the psychology essay is not one of those. However, writing a proper psychology essay demand selecting a good topic, planning, outlining, all the stages of preliminary research and analysis, editing, and proofreading, just like any other type of essay.
Critique papers require students to conduct a critical analysis of another piece of writing, often a book, journal article, or essay.
No matter what your major is, you will probably be expected to write a critique paper at some point. Writing a critical analysis essay is a captivating process if you know the right structure and use the experience of the qualified experts who know all the intricacies of essay creation.
Example of effective critical writing. The text below is an example of good critical writing, and is based on essay material supplied by University of Leicester’s School of Psychology.
The author refers to the available evidence, but also evaluates the validity of that evidence, and assesses what contribution it can realistically make to the debate.